Tushratta


Tushratta
King of Mitanni reign of Amenophis III, 1417-1379 BC.
    In the early Eighteenth Dynasty, *Mitanni—the great northern Mesopotamian state— had come into direct conflict with Egypt, and *Tuthmosis III had led military campaigns to prevent *Mitanni's further expansion. A diplomatic alliance had then been fostered between the two countries, which was cemented by royal marriages when the *Mitannian king, Artatama I, gave his daughter to become the wife of *Tuthmosis IV, and *Amenophis III received two *Mitannian princesses, *Ghilukhepa and *Tadukhepa, in marriage.
    Tushratta, the son of *Shuttarna, became king of *Mitanni after an elder brother was murdered. He was the brother of *Ghilukhepa and the father of *Tadukhepa, and he enjoyed cordial diplomatic and familial relationships with *Amenophis III and his Court. In the archive of letters found at Tell el Amarna, Tushratta's letters have been discovered addressed to *Amenophis III, his widow Queen *Tiye, and Amenophis IV—*Akhenaten. His letter to *Amenophis III, written in five hundred lines of well-preserved text, is the main source for the study of the Human language. In addition to family matters, the correspondence relates how Tushratta sent the image of the goddess 'Ishtar of Nineveh' to his elderly and sick son-in-law, *Amenophis III, in Year 36 of his reign, in the hope that she would bring about a cure for the Egyptian king.
    The *Hittite king, *Suppiluliumas, became engaged in military conflict with Tushratta and finally Tushratta was assassinated; he was succeeded by Artatama, the heir favoured by a faction who were supported by the *Assyrians.
BIBL. Mercer, S.A.B. The Tell El-Amarna Tablets, (two vols) Toronto: 1939.
Biographical Dictionary of Ancient Egypt by Rosalie and Antony E. David
* * *
(fl. 1342–27 BC)
   King of Mitanni. Son of Shuttarna II of Mitanni. He succeeded to the throne after a succession crisis in which his brother was killed. His aunt was married to Thutmose IV; his sister, Gilukhepa, to Amenhotep III; and his daughter, Tadukhepa, to Amenhotep III and then Akhenaten. He was one of the correspondents in the Amarna letters. His kingdom was weakened by Hittite aggression under Suppiluliuma I and dynastic disputes that resulted in his assassination. His kingdom was then reduced to vassalage by the Hittites.
   See also Warfare.
Historical Dictionary Of Ancient Egypt by Morris L. Bierbrier

Ancient Egypt. A Reference Guide. . 2011.

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